Home > Edd news > How to learn to fight tanks. In the service of the White movement

image

By the end of the First World former Russian Empire absorbed its own war, civil. It featured at tactics degradation and decline of technical equipment of troops. But there were exceptions. In some cases, apply the latest models of weapons, including – the tanks.

War with disabilities

The first tanks for Whites, about 20 French “Renault» FT-17 arrived in Odessa, December 18, 1918. They were followed by the British – Mark V heavy and medium Whippet (only about 85 cars on all fronts). In theory, on the background of the collapse of even two or three serviceable tanks were weapons that can throw any opponent. In practice, the use of tanks faced with many problems.

There was a shortage of trained crews had to attract British and French specialists. First White Guard tankers were taught foreign instructors, several foreign volunteer corps fought against the Reds, but since 1920 tanks fought only Russian.

image

big obstacle for the implementation of tactical tasks was a great length of fronts. Upon the occurrence of the Army Nikolai Yudenich on Petrograd in the autumn of 1919 the tanks had to go into battle again and again – up to three times per day. In just four days tank “Captain Cromie” passed nearly 160 km, the tank “Brown Bear” a little less – 155 km, and the “First Aid” – 130 km. For the first tanks it was a very long raids, they quickly wear out mechanisms and have exhausted crews.

On the normal supply even can not speak. In the chaos of the civil war some tankers White Army – a rare and elite kind of troops – did not even have an entire garment. One of them recalled: “Upon arrival at the tank battalion my wardrobe consisted of a sailor, torn in many places, in a terrible state black trousers and a pair of shoes without soles. I had no cap, no socks, no underwear “. Later, the British gave him a fresh form. Russian tankers, as opposed to the British crews did not receive salaries, poorly fed, could not buy tobacco. Fuel had to haul the carts.

Tank sword White Guard

Besides the obvious advantages in combat, the appearance of tanks on the battlefield produced a psychological effect on the Reds. Even with heavy guns, the soldiers did not know how to hit moving armored targets. Tank crews claimed that it fired 107-mm and even 220-mm guns, but the barrage caused virtually no damage to the machines. A typical description of the merits of the tank commander at the time: “to break through the enemy artificial barriers, entered the trenches and in spite of the heavy artillery fire remained there for 25 minutes, making it possible to go without loss of its infantry” .

In the battle of the Red Army Preobrazhenka farm-gunner Kalinichenko, shooting bullets went in the dead zone near the tank and knocked on the armor grenade. Then he climbed on a tank, but was injured breaking his own grenade

The first tank attacks seemed undeterred both sides, despite their rough and primitive tactics. Even though the roar of engines that gave the car going to the front, and the interaction with the infantry and artillery was not established, tanks again and again victorious. It is thanks to them A.Denikin captured Tsaritsyn and Donbass.

Red infantry still had anti-tank weapons. Ordinary bullets bounced off the armor, in the worst case, the particles of metal and paint, fly off into the machines, scratched faces and hands tankers. Ways to deal with the threat of an armored searched more insistently. As evidence that the tanks are vulnerable, in Petrograd demonstrated a machine that has lined at Gatchina Latvian battery G. Briedisa.

By the beginning of 1920 the tactics of combat employment of tanks Whites greatly improved. During a break from the Crimea tank units Wrangel already being used disguise, they were provided with trucks, motorcycles, power plants and even hospitals. It was a lack of cooperation with the sappers and artillery, the normal maintenance of machines. As a result, the red front was broken, Wrangel’s army came to North brand.

image

Save the description as red tried the hamlet Preobrazhenka (next to the Perekop) destroy the tank cavalry and artillery. Dismounted cavalrymen among the trees, taking a position with a bunch of grenades and machine gun. First they threw grenades from a distance, then thirty steps, but without any effect. Rifle and machine-gun fire machine also was not afraid. One of the soldiers went into a dead zone near the tank, knocking on the armor grenade, then climbed on the car, but was injured by explosion own grenades. After a deal to take horse battery. According to the plan they had to line up in a semicircle and shoot the tank into the board. But the fire guns with thousands of steps was inaccurate, so one of the battery left five hundred paces. Joint fire two batteries one of the tanks was hit, but the second car towed to the rear.

Kakhovsky triumph of the Red Army

The culmination of the use of tanks in the Civil War began fighting in the Kakhovka bridgehead October 14, 1920. White’s attack under the command of Wrangel was built according to the canons of tactics and theoretically had a good chance of success. Early in the morning suddenly spoke artillery, then 12 tanks, backed by horse batteries, armored vehicles and infantry attacked the positions of red.

Being in pole position, White made a number of errors. They attacked in two and a half hours before dawn, so that the tanks had not seen each other and fought virtually alone. In addition, artillery and aircraft have not provided timely support to the offensive, and the white infantry battle was associated with red and could not help the tanks.

The soldiers, in turn

image image

s were wary previous attacks and prepared. They fortified bridgehead three lines of trenches, ditches, anti-tank landmines and even flamethrowers. To the front of the armored cars were deployed, armed with guns. Gunners Red Army had already knew how to deal with tanks. Allocated for this special “dagger” batteries, firing point-blank range with small distances. The result – “trapping” of five tanks. In this battle the forces of Wrangel defeated definitively deprived of his hopes for a successful attack.

Also read:

Lyricist – Eugene Belas

Sources:

  • Report on the British Military Mission, South Russia by Gen. Holman, 8 October 1919. CHAR 16/29, CCAC.
  • With Lieutenant Colonel Hope Carson in Estonia and Russia. Baltic Defence Review 2/1999.
  • guest IM Tanks in the civil war in the North and the monument in Arkhangelsk. Arkhangelsk, 2011.
  • Krastyn YP Latvian riflemen in the struggle for Soviet power 1917-1920. Memories and documents. Riga. Publisher Academy of Sciences of the Latvian SSR, 1962.
  • Reden NR through hell Russian Revolution. Memories midshipman 1914-1919. Moscow: Tsentropoligraf, 2006.
  • Trembovelskaya A. Episodes from the life of the 3rd squad of tanks. Pervopohodnik, № 3. October 1971 Pervopohodnik, № 4. December 1971 № 6. April 1972
  • Williamson Huddleston. Farewell to Don. The Russian Civil War diaries of a British officer 1919-1920. – M .: Tsentrpoligraf, 2007.
  • The Big Way. Memories of the Civil War. Ed. VD Polikarpov. Moscow, Military Publishing, 1963.
  • Fedoseev SL against Russian tanks. Armor. Number 4 (9). 2011.

Source link.

Опубликовал Poruchik Maaly Comments Off on How to learn to fight tanks. In the service of the White movement

Нет комментариев.