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Beginners “Bagration”

direction of the Belarusian winter ’43 – in the spring of the 44th Red Army had seriously. It formed the front position, and no matter how tried commanders, to break through the German defenses failed. Revenge was taken in the summer, when four Soviet front to the nines defeated the German Army Group “Center” in the Belarusian offensive operation.

His contribution to the victory was made not only to Soviet soldiers and officers, but also the designers at Throughout the war, to create new and more effective means to deal with the enemy. By the beginning of operation “Bagration” The Red Army has expanded its arsenal of five new products.


Guards rocket mortar BM -31-12




In early 1943, Soviet designers developed powerful rockets M-31 that an explosive charge by weight more than five times shells famous “Katyusha” BM-13. After the explosion, the M-31 remained a funnel to a depth of 2.5 meters. Direct hit it completely destroys a small dot, and to blow to smithereens two- or three-story brick house, enough, depending on the strength of the building, from three to six hits. If the fuse M-31 was set to instant action, the shock wave hit the open target at a distance of 25 meters.

[1,999,016] Dvenadtsatizaryadnuyu installation BM-31-12, the Red Army has adopted in the beginning of June 44th. Guides shells mounted on the chassis of the truck lend-lease “Studebaker”. Parts armed BM-31-12, completed with the best battery commander, electricians and drivers. In fact, to bring the installation into the firing position or recharge it, it took no more than 15 minutes.

[1,999,016] Soviet soldiers gave new Guards mortars nickname “Andrew.”


[1,999,042] 160-mm mortar model 1943 (MT-13, M-43)




In the development of large-caliber mortars designers had to, among other things, solve the problem of charging heavy projectile in a rather long barrel. Mina wanted to lift to a height of two to three meters, and do it without special tools it was almost impossible. But the Soviet designers were able to find a way out of the impasse.

160-mm mortar MT-13 as a whole was based on the traditional pattern, with one exception: it is not being charged with a muzzle and on the breech like the traditional cannon. For loading rocker shaft had lowered horizontally, and after dosylka mines – to raise the position for shooting. This complicated structure, but helped to bring the mortar to the level of full-fledged heavy artillery.

160-mm mortar model 1943 had no rivals and competitors in other armies. Foreign counterparts caliber from 150 to 210 mm, or made in small batches, or remained at the prototype stage.





[1,999,016] Thank you for your assistance in preparing the material historians archival group Wargaming.

See also:


    Kolomiets Maksim Viktorovich, Mikhail Makarov. Rocket artillery of the Red Army, 1941-1945. Front illustration, 2005.

    [1,999,121] Svirin MN Tank might of the USSR. – M .: Eksmo, Yauza, 2008. – ISBN 978-5-699-31700-4.

    [1,999,121] Isaev AV “Operation Bagration”. “Stalin’s blitzkrieg” in Belarus. – M .: Jauza; Eksmo, 2014. – 448 p. – ISBN 978-5-699-72841-1

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