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РСЗО Смерч
9K58 MLRS “Smerch “- Soviet and Russian multiple launch rocket system caliber 300 mm.
November 19, 1987 was adopted by the multiple launch rocket system (MLRS)” Twister. ” She became the successor of the famous “Katyusha”, during the war terrifies the enemy. Modern installations on the firing range and effectiveness of defeats the purpose of approaching tactical missiles.

glorious past

In the postwar years, the work on the creation of reactive multiple rocket launchers were concentrated in Tula Research Institute of Precision Engineering, now NGO called “Alloy”. A huge breakthrough in this field was made in 1960, when on arms began to flow the well-known system of the BM-21 “Grad”. It was so successful that the number of systems produced nearer to 9 thousand.

mounted on the car “Ural” she had the firing range with forty guides from 5 to 40 km km with a coverage area of ​​145 sq. m. m. “Grad”, still in use, has several types of 122-mm unguided rockets, some of whom are even directors smokescreen.

Over 28 years of production MLRS “Grad” was released a few modifications, differing as the power of fire, and on the chassis on which it is installed. Dissemination System is unique, she is or was armed with 70 and armies around the world. And not only the former Soviet republics of the socialist countries and the countries that fought for independence with the active assistance of the USSR. “Grad” is, for example, in the US, where they were sold from Romania and Ukraine.

The world’s best

In 1987 Tula released 9K58 MLRS “Smerch”, whereby Change the view of the possibilities of reactive volley of artillery. Volley battery of six such fighting machines capable to stop the advance Motorized Rifle Division.

Until 1990 “Smerch”, capable of hitting targets at a distance of 100 km, was the long-range system in the world. Then burst forth the Chinese who brought this figure to 180 km of fantastic.

However, the effectiveness of MLRS is composed of a plurality of parameters, and on the merits of this development together Tula “alloy” is the best in the world.

Long range – a double edged sword. Americans, creating their similar systems during research found that when the range of over 40 km dispersal shells will be too large. But designed for “Smerch” shells have a unique design that provides precision hit, 2-3 times higher than foreign systems of rocket artillery.

“Twister” – is not only setting that sends the horizon ruthless shells. The system includes:

– tanks (BM) 9K58;
– Transportation and loading vehicle 9T234-2;
– Rockets;
– Training facilities 9F827;
– Set the arsenal of special equipment and tools 9F819;
– Complex of automated fire control system (AIMS) 9S729M1 “Impression 1”;
– Vehicle for surveying 1T12-2M;
– Radiopelengatsionny Meteorological Complex 1B44.

export version “Smerch” worth 12.5 million. dollars.

BM 12 has a guide providing salvo fire 300mm rockets. One gulp covered an area of ​​672 thousand sq. M. m., i.e. 67 hectares.

This dispersion does not exceed 0.3% of the range. This is achieved by operating the flight control system, which adjusts the trajectory of the pitch and yaw. Because of this precision hits “Tornado” was increased by 2 times. The deviation does not exceed 150 m, which brings the system to hit by artillery shells. A grouping of shots was increased 3-fold. Correction is carried gazodinamicheskimi rudders actuated high pressure gas from the gas generator onboard. Stabilization of the projectile in flight is due to the rotation around its longitudinal axis, provides pre-promotion while driving on a tubular guide and support in flight due to the installation of the stabilizer blades drop down at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the projectile.

Another advantage of the shells is that they hit the target at right angles to the surface.

In the ammunition “Smerch” includes 7 types of 800-kilogram shells:

– 9M55K – cluster bomb containing 72 submunitions carrying 6,912 heavy and light fragments 25920;
– 9M55K1 has 5 homing armor submunitions equipped with dual-band infrared focal points;
– 9M55K4 contains 25 anti-tank mines with electronic proximity fuse. During one volley set 300 min before units combat materiel located at the turn of the attack;
– 9M55K5 contains 588 shaped-charge fragmentation submunitions each weighing 240 g and a length of 128 mm, able to penetrate 160 mm armor;
– 9M55F and 9M528 – missiles with detachable high-explosive fragmentation warhead;
– 9M55S the explosion creates a thermal field with a diameter of not less than 25 m (depending on terrain) with a temperature of over 1000 degrees for 1.5 seconds.
The major role played by parameters such as time spent on all sorts of calculation steps, consisting of three people. What is particularly relevant given the rapid reaction of the opponent. Translation system from traveling to combat, for 3 minutes. For 38 seconds, produced a volley. And one minute fighting machine capable to change the location that allows escape from retaliatory salvo of the enemy.

In the 90 years of the armed system “Smerch”, they started to install automatic fire control system “Vivarium” developed Tomsk at “Contour”. The system integrates several command and staff vehicles at the disposal of the commander and chief of staff of the brigade MLRS, and their subordinate commanders of divisions (up to three) and the battery (up to eighteen). Equipment command post vehicles of the “Vivarium” provides data exchange with higher-level subordinate and cooperating governments, solves the problem of planning and concentrated fire on the columns of fire and prepares the data for the shooting, collecting and analyzing information on the status of artillery units.
“Twister” – not the last Russian MLRS. At the moment the outbreak of armed artillery units first systems “Tornado”, developed at the NGO “Alloy”. During one volley it produces forty 122-mm rockets and has the same range as the “Tornado”. At the same time it is a deep modernization of the MLRS “Grad”. The main advantage of “Tornado” is its increased maneuverability and rate of fire. In preparation for the shooting takes 30 seconds to volley – 20 seconds, the departure from the position for 30 seconds.

Long-range fire-breathing dragon

Second place in perfection MLRS now is China. In service of this country is almost a dozen systems created both independently and copied from purchased from Russian samples. In particular, the Chinese A-100 resembles our “Twister.” But there is a noticeable difference. Less example, and the firing range. And to prepare for shooting on the volley and on departure from the position it takes almost 3 times more.

Chinese MLRS A-100

Much better from the Chinese get their own system, which produces aerospace company in Sichuan. Parameters of her latest WS-3, established in 2010, is impressive. For one, she released a volley of six 400-mm shells at a distance of 70 km to 200 km. However, their trajectory is corrected using GPS, so the deviation from the target does not exceed 50 m.

However, enthusiasm range badly affected the killing power of rockets. Due to the installation of a powerful engine and a large volume of fuel at a fraction warheads got not so much weight. If the 300-mm rockets “Twister” have a 280-kilogram warhead, then WS-3 – 200 kg. And in a volley of only 6, not 12. The disadvantages of this MRL applies a small number of types of missiles – three of them: Blast, cassette and surround the explosion.

Китайская РСЗО WS-3
Chinese MLRS WS-3 – Another unpleasant side range of the system is that it is closer than 70 km can not shoot it.

American hybrids

By the end of 70s American strategists believed that in the coming war for world domination multiple rocket launchers are needed as well as a bath pliers. Then realized it. But go your way, making two hybrids – MLRS (1983) and HIMARS (2005). They feature not only unguided, but also tactical missiles, shoot off one by one. In connection with the information about their range of 300 km and 400 km, to fire a volley no relation.

Американская РСЗО MLRS
American MLRS MLRS – has 12 guides serving a 240-mm shells. The firing range lies between 10 km and 40 km. Weight of warhead projectile – 150 kg. Damaged area – 25 thousand sq. M

HIMARS in its capabilities also falls short of the best Russian and Chinese systems. It has 6 guides for 227-mm shells. Range reaches quite serious numbers 80 km, but the volley covers an area of ​​67 thousand sq. M, which is 10 times less than that of “Twister.”

Sources: http://svpressa.ru , http://interpolit.ru, http://rus-ammo.ru

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