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Origins of tank development. Tank Dreaming


The appearance of tanks on the battlefield meant that the “war engines” has reached its peak. At this point, preceded by a long path of searching, trial and error, and many of the dead ends to this day remains unknown.

Tanks brought to life logic World War with its challenges to mankind. And, although the first was the British Mk 1, the advent of tanks predicted even ordinary people in the outback of the Russian Empire. They formed their naive projects fighting vehicles of the future. Let’s look at a few of them.

“Fighting weaver’s shuttle”

Эскиз «Пулехода» Р.И. Шовкопляса August 1, 1915, exactly one year after the start of the Great War, a peasant Minusinskogo County Yenisei province Roman Ivanovich Shovkoplyas gripping premonition eve recent times and the end of the world. In an effort to lose a stone with a soul, he wasted no time wrote a letter to the Minister of War of the Russian Empire, outlining his idea: create “is a device that our soldiers could fly for several miles in a few minutes or hours to his appointment at the distance of 3 or 5 yards and send him in the chest as the bullets rain spulimeta and any projectiles and most soldiers will not see and Nisht him no harm except bombs & hellip; ». (Hereinafter, spelling and style of the original source retained. – Comm. Ed.)

The letter did not contain any technical description Shovkoplyas ideas. Peasant consciousness, full of faith in technological progress, however, clung to the surrounding everyday objects in search of analogies and inverse images. And such was & hellip; hook – moving part of the loom, to lay crosswise yarns in creating tissue.

“I realized INTO can arrange car on the similarity of the shuttle sewing machine old type increased several times more to arrange a car to attach to the rear under pulimet do under its wheels to provide projectiles and throw in action “ – innocently wrote Shovkoplyas. At the end of the letter, and he painted a funny sketch invented war machine, dubbed “Pulehod.” Despite the incredible simplicity of the drawing, there were taken into account and the engine compartment ( “machine oparata” ), and chassis, and the fighting compartment with boeukladki!

armored car racing

Эскиз «Бронированного автомобиля сигарообразной формы» А.И. Кудрявцева. Much to his own project thoroughly combat vehicle with improved aerodynamics approached Moscow resident AI Kudryavtsev. In the summer of 1916, he sent to the Main Military-technical management description and sketch of “armored car cigar-shaped.” In the first lines of the email the author listed the design advantages:

  • “sliding surface sloping, ricochet bullets hitting it;
  • guns are located on the surface of the body without taking up space inside;
  • motor placed in the middle of the chassis frame, allows repair it, start, produce within;
  • gearbox serves as would seat & hellip; ».

Рисунок нового германского броневика, выполненный российским военным разведчиком Kudryavtsev, as he himself thought took into account all. The absence of springs in the design of the armored car compensated springs placed crew under his cap. Hands Gunners in output boxes without lids protect broneschitki. Armored covers with anti-aircraft gun in the roof of the body has increased firepower. Tightness in the car, even when setting out guns out, also supplied as an advantage – it pressed against the window of the output driver opens a great review. The inventor was convinced that his child due to the shape of the body and can serve as a battering ram speed.

However GVTU verdict on the discussion of this project was succinct: “Placement of people in the car is not rational. Strengthening the guns are not rational. Strengthening the gun is not rational. Not only the general idea, but no idea of ​​its component can be neither useful nor taking note “. Found it impossible to even the creation of the proposed body shape – although there snobbery military engineers was soon dispelled by reports of military intelligence officers to develop a new armored cars in Germany.

Roller like a tank

go the other by rather pave my own, in early 1915 decided farmer Paul Skroznikov Arkhangelsk province. In a letter to the Main Military-technical management (GVTU) Military Ministry, he outlined his “thought to the device of the machine in order to crush the enemy n ehotu” .

Essence concept was simple: a hollow steel cylinder sizes 2 yard (about 1.5 meters) in diameter and 3 yard (2.13 meters) in the longitudinal projection, using a rolling car “which subtopic lkivaet his roll “. Axis of the cylinder and the car connected rods. Moving from the spot, the latter leads rink in motion, and & hellip;

Эскиз «Бочки» П. Скрозникова “Several tens of such cylinders, started up in a row on a high speed in a few minutes without a sound, without the cost of shells and the victims are the way destroyed revive a crush enemy unit “ – argued Skroznikov. Besides, he adds, the cylinder will serve as a shield for the vehicle and its crew. Why not use a machine at the same time as the infantry transporter?

Alas, the reality in the face of military specialists GVTU not meet the expectations of the inventor, his proposal found no practical importance, and in the notice of this yet and asked to pay stamp duty in the amount of two rubles – for postage.

Barrel-mitrailleuse “Volcano”

With the fall of the autocracy in Russia in March 1917, the key inventive thinking not dried – on the contrary, Revolution gave it a new impetus. In May 1917, a crucial period of preparation major offensive of the Russian army, designed to turn the tide of the war, in the Engineering Committee GVTU asked someone Suhmanov citizen.

His proposal was messy described, and a schematic drawing of the now lost. But what cost is already the name of the project – “Barrel-mitrailleuse & ldquo; Volcano & rdquo;» . It was about a special armored barrel to 7 yards (5 meters) in diameter and 9 yards (6.4 meters) in length. Each bottom barrel guns Suhmanov offer is located. The most interesting detail of the project was Chassis: Motor inventor refused in favor of muscular strength. Lead tank in motion should one or two sitting inside her work.

Suhmanov wrote: “In horizontal cylindrical barrel portion of the inside of the 4 wheels mounted on a wooden bench with a mechanism for driving and braking drums, and to it hangs another machine with a wooden floor for cargo space … Rotating drum reaches 2 flywheels with pedals, which presses the sitting worker is placed at both ends of the fixed machine to go back and forth “. He provided the frame and on the axis of his “cask-mitrailleuse” to tow her horse-drawn over rough terrain. In the case of damage to the flywheel adds Suhmanov “it is possible to rotate the barrel of a simple stepping working on the inside of the barrel” – like a squirrel in a cage.

It is easy to guess that the Engineering Committee of experts answered devastating critique of this proposal. Implement transportation even on ordinary wagons been easier. Next – heavy tank with a load of 1 ton would be unable to budge even the hardiest workers. Well started going downhill terrain, barrel-mitrailleuse “Volcano” would have been a threat to themselves Russian troops, like the one that was plotting against the Germans P. Skroznikov, which are explained above.

Suhmanova idea was rejected. However, he had, without knowing it, was the author of one of the first projects of the domestic tank. Indeed, in 1917, the word itself has not become an international, translated to English language meaning “tank.”

Today rollers are peaceful life, and streamlining is a key parameter for racing cars. Take the path from the primitive technology to tanks, history has put everything in place. But the journey along this path to its origins still promises many discoveries.

Lyricist – Yuri Bahurin

Yuri Bahurin – military historian. Author of several publications in national and regional scientific press: magazines “Questions of history,” “Military History Journal,” “Military-Historical Archive”, “Motherland”, “Anthology of War” anthology “Reiter” and so on. D. The author «Panzerj & auml; ger Tiger (P) & ldquo; Ferdinand & rdquo ;. Combat use. “


  • Russian State Military History Archive (RGVIA). F. 493. Op. 2. D. 6. L. 373;
  • RGVIA. F. 803. Op. 1. D. L. 1828. 366-366ob, 411-412ob;
  • RGVIA. F. 803. Op. 1. D. 1829. L. 154-156, 158-158ob;
  • Documentary Collection of Wargaming.

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