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About thirty years ago, Nizhny Tagil the designers have laid the foundation for a new tank, create a project “Object 187” and “object 187a.” Then it was built in metal groundbreaking, but “unlucky” “Object 195”. What eventually came Ural engineers?

On the way to a breakthrough

Successful solutions Soviet engineers in the mid ’60s helped to create tanks with dense layout. Combat vehicles have become more compact, not too heavy, but at the same time – not bad protected. On the other hand, if the projectile enemy still pierced the armor, it is almost guaranteed destruction units should tank or tank failure. Of particular concern are stacking of ammunition, located directly in the fighting compartment.

By the end of the 80s in the Soviet army had three main types of tanks: T-64, T-72 and T-80. This was at odds with the principle of unification of armored forces. T-90, which was supposed to replace them was not truly innovative [1,999,016]

In the 80 years of work on future tanks were on all major tank factory USSR. The designers sought to increase the firepower (including by increasing the caliber guns), to strengthen the armor protection and maximum automation of the machine. In addition, it was necessary to work out a new version of the layout as a classic is no longer fully ensures the survival of the tank and its crew on the battlefield.

Before Soviet designers was a difficult task: they had to develop an innovative solution for the separation and protection of the crew, the crew compartment and combat pack. Above that we worked in Kharkov, Nizhny Tagil and Leningrad. Project designers Nizhny Tagil “Object 187a”, though has not been embodied in metal, became the basis for the program development work “Improvement-88.” In 2000, it was created under the “Object 195”, the predecessor of the T-14, built on the basis of heavy tracked unified platform “Armata”.

What is the logic of creating a unified platform? It simplifies the task of the industry for the production of spare parts. Simply work repairmen, easier to train staff. A single platform provides a large number of machines, which reduces the cost of each unit. Technology is based on one of about the same speed, which is very important when moving units on the march. Example: armored vehicle launched bridge, which is close to the main protection of the tank must not fall behind on the battlefield he had to appear with combat vehicles.

elder brother “Almaty was”

In the “Object 195”, the precursor T-14 designers from Nizhny Tagil implemented two major innovations: uninhabited and armored fighting compartment for the crew capsule. New, however, turned out to be slightly forgotten old – in the fifties in the USSR had tried to smash arms and the crew of the individual modules, but only in the project. Similar works were in the eighties.

Capsule “one hundred and ninety-five” had enhanced armor protection from all sides: from the sides, the roof of the forehead. From the crew compartment tank armor too separated partition. In addition, the design of the fighting compartment was carried out so that the shock wave at undermining went anywhere, but not in the direction of people. One hundred percent survival is certainly not guaranteed, but the chance of surviving crew became many times more.

Танк «Объект 195». Большая часть информации о нём до сих пор засекречена uninhabited combat compartment of the new tank is fully automatic. Inside was ammunition and loading mechanism. The tower has served as the gun carriage. At the same time it serves as an additional protection against krysheboynyh ammunition – apparently to break such an obstacle is more difficult than a single sheet of armor. Inside the fighting compartment tankers were to go only in the event of a crisis, such as failure mechanisms.

The main armament of “one hundred and ninety-five” was a 152-mm smoothbore gun 2A83, let us tremendous opportunities to engage targets as the feathered-piercing projectiles and guided missiles of a new type.

“Object 195” has passed state tests in the late 2000s, but did not go in the series. There were several reasons. Firstly, the 152-mm gun was excessively powerful for her opponents projectile at that time was not in the short term is not expected. Secondly, in “one hundred and ninety-five” I was a little ammunition – a total of 24 shots. In order to fight only with the enemy vehicles, it is acceptable. But the modern main tank should solve a wide range of tasks, and it may happen that too frequent loading ammunition is difficult or impossible. There were complaints and armor “Object 195” if his forehead was protected very well, the roof and the side not up to the new, increased demands. The industry also was not ready to release a new tank.

Shortly after finishing work on “one hundred and ninety-fifth” appeared “Object 148”, also known as the T-14. It was this tank is now called “Armata”. T-14 has absorbed all that was best in the “Object 195”, but a qualitatively new technological level.

Sketches for a portrait T-14

From the “Object 195” “Armata” inherited a sealed compartment management with well-protected capsule, uninhabited combat compartment and the engine-transmission compartment in the stern. In the tank the most of modular design, which provides a huge opportunity for repairs or upgrades: most amenable to rapid replacement of components and assemblies. You can, if necessary, increase the weight. Such is the “Lego-tank” weighing 50 to 65 tons (maximum stated load capacity chassis “Almaty was”).

Drivetrain T-14 for easy field repairs are made in a single block, which can be replaced in less than an hour [1,999,016]

The powerful front node booking T-14 on the dimensions comparable to control the capsule compartment. The upper and lower frontal body parts, in addition to a multi-layer combination of the main armor, protected by more bronekonstruktsiey on which the dynamic protection of new generation. Its purpose – the destruction or destabilization of ammunition, threaten the basic armor. Additional modules mounted dynamic protection and covered with boards. All nodes reservations T-14 can be fairly easy to replace.

Why still the capsule, with heavily patrolled forward as if pressed to the frontal protection site? According to the calculations of designers, a strong frontal detail of the T-14 will not be able to break any one of the tank guns, the currently existing (including the instrument itself “Almaty was”), or those that will in the coming years. The crew, which is right behind this barrier, much harder hit: if he is pressed to the board. The shell is not the enemy gets in the frontal armor unit, and the side of the capsule in only one case: if the fire will take place in the side, at angles close to 90 degrees. However, the board, the roof of the capsule and the fighting compartment are also covered by a multi-layer armor and explosive reactive armor.

T-14 Tower – it’s actually for the carriage of sights, a variety of equipment and, of course, a 125-mm gun 2A82 of high power. The design of the gun is that its accuracy is very high even without the high-tech fire control system. The instrument worked in two versions: with the ejector to remove the powder gases, and without it – it is the latter option is set to T-14. Fortunately for the issue gassed “Almaty was” not of paramount importance, it is still in the combat compartment people do not.

Танк на базе универсальной платформы «Армата». Источник — сайт Минобороны РФ Tank Engine Diesel, X-shaped, 12-cylinder. His feature – variable power from 1200 to 1500 liters. p. Service life at maximum – about 10 000 hours. This in itself is very much, and if you use the “gentle” mode, the lifetime increases. However, even minimal power enough to the tank to maintain good mobility. To simplify field maintenance engine and transmission are made in a single block, replaceable less than an hour.

Chassis tank length at seven rollers as the “Object 195”. This circuit designers considered optimal. On the one hand, because she was able to improve the protection of the tank, on the other – in comparison with its predecessor, the T-14 is not heavier, and has not increased in size. Although in comparison, for example, the T-90A and T-80U “Armata” still weighs more.

To improve the mobility of T-14 equipped with a controlled adaptive suspension, which can be adjusted depending on the nature of the soil, the speed of movement of the tank, combat missions. You can change the rigidity, limiting the progress rink and so. D. As a result of increased average and maximum speed, and increases accuracy on the move (though this additional factor, here the main role at the fire control system and stabilizing arms).

Each tank is packed with modern high-tech filling, and the T-14 is no exception. Tanker turned to the operator. He gets a complete picture with different channels of fire control, the screen displays maps and various information graphics. Systems Management – buttons, joysticks and touch monitors. The driver leads the tank through the wheel, and not arms, which is also much more convenient.

In unofficial reports of T-14 is sometimes pointed out that the tank will get a radar with an active phased array, which will be simultaneously track hundreds of targets at great distances. Phased array really is, but they belong to the newest complex of active protection “Afghans”, whose mission – to capture the enemy’s ammunition with special submunitions. The new system not only protects against anti-tank missiles, grenades rocket-propelled grenade, but also on krysheboynyh ammunition and projectiles of all types: cumulative, high-explosive and armor-piercing even.

Any combat vehicle – a product of compromise. Some of the solutions conceived by designers T-14, was unable to fulfill. For example, it had to be excluded from the system of fire control radar additional channel. But matrix for thermal fully developed in Russia and are designed specifically for the new tank, have already reached the stage of pilot production.

The road to pass

Tank T-14 – one of many types of equipment to be built on the basis of a universal platform “Armata”. The plans – production of armored vehicle launched bridges, armored flamethrower, mine-layers-razgraditeley, engineering machinery, and so on. D.

Already on the basis of “Almaty was” created three samples: heavy BMP-15 (infantry fighting vehicle), Bram (combat recovery vehicle) and the actual tank T-14. Each variety of these techniques exist in the experimental batch, which will be shown on May 9 parade in Moscow. Then the equipment will go to completion, development and operation of a military state tests.

The path of the T-14 high-volume assembly line is far from complete. Now it’s even a promising, but all the same “child” probably suffered a lot of “childhood diseases”. It will develop, refine and improve, before he was promoted to the main battle tank. At the T-14 is a great potential for modernization. You can improve the weapons, put a better electronic stuffing can strengthen armor. According to the designers of the period of its “life” in the army – at least 50 years.


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