Home > Site news > The history of Soviet tank production. Towered heavy tanks (draft 1937 – 1940). (Aces)

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In 1937, the Red Army was armed with only one type of heavy tank T-35, which is the middle of the 30s has ceased to satisfy the requirements for breakthrough tank and artillery support.

История советского танкостроения. Многобашенные тяжелые танки  (проекты 1937 - 1940 гг).
captured Soviet heavy tank T-35 in Germany in 1941 (the figures indicate the thickness of armor in mm). [1,999,003]

Appeared in 1937, the new anti-tank weapons caliber 37-47 mm questioned the possibility of successful application of the T-35. The task for the design of heavy breakthrough tank based on the T-P5, capable of operating in a new environment, it was vyda¬no CB plant number 183 at the end of September 1937 to specifications obtained from plant ABTU in November of the same year, the new car should was to have: a mass of 50-55 t., armor protection made of steel sheets tolschi¬noy; 15, 20, 30 and 75 mm main gun caliber 76 mm and two 45 mm guns mounted in three conical towers and seven 7.62-mm machine-guns and flamethrower 1. M-17 engine with 600 hp It was to ensure the car speeds up to 25 km / h. Za¬pas move the tank is not less than 100 km, the crew of the machine was to consist of ten people.
In fact, it was about creating a new, more secure version of the T-35.

История советского танкостроения. Многобашенные тяжелые танки  (проекты 1937 - 1940 гг).

A similar task of designing a new tank, but with less weight (40 m.) And the installation of a diesel engine capacity of 800 hp It was issued CB LB. With this engine, the power reserve of the machine increased to 350-400 km.

In December 1937 CB plant number 185 on its own initiative drafted heavy tank T-51 (with two options for the location of towers) with protivosnaryadnym book, provides protection against missiles 76mm cannon, but the metal project was not implemented. He became, however, an important step in the creation of the concept of heavy tank T-100.

История советского танкостроения. Многобашенные тяжелые танки  (проекты 1937 - 1940 гг).
История советского танкостроения. Многобашенные тяжелые танки  (проекты 1937 - 1940 гг).
Projects of the T-51 with the options of accommodation towers with 76mm and two 45mm guns. [1,999,003]

Attempts to develop heavy tank breakthrough on the basis of tank T-35 by increasing armor protection shielding, as well as increasing its firepower by installing new weapons (in the plan was to re-equip the available tanks weapon L-10, from which later abandoned) led to an increase in Battle mass and decreased mobility of the machine, but did not provide the required level of protection against anti-tank weapons of the enemy. In this regard, the Supreme Military Council of NGOs, held on 28 April 1938, which addressed the issue of weapon system of the Red Army, it was decided to create a new heavy tank with a powerful armor and vooruzhe¬niem – heavy breakthrough tank, capable of operating in the most difficult fortified areas with a developed system of anti-tank defense. GABTU were formulated at the end of April 1938 approved new requirements for this type of tank, work on the creation of which had been deployed in the design offices of three plants: LB, KhPZ (№ 183) and № 185.
breakthrough heavy tank developed on the basis of analysis and improvement of the layout scheme heavy tank T-35 in view of enhancing its armor protection, firepower and mobility increase. During the development of the layout scheme of the machine considered various options for deploying weapons in five or three towers. The final decision on the layout diagram of the machine was made in favor of the three-towered structure.

История советского танкостроения. Многобашенные тяжелые танки  (проекты 1937 - 1940 гг).
An early draft of the tank QMS (1938). [1,999,003]

Initial development LB and CB plant number 185 represented three-turret heavy tanks with equal strength booking thickness 45-50mm.

История советского танкостроения. Многобашенные тяжелые танки  (проекты 1937 - 1940 гг).
Drawing SMK tank hulls in 3-tower case (top view). [1,999,003]

The CB plant number 18Z team led by engineer ET Dikalova engaged razra¬botkoy new three-turret tank breakthrough, which differed from the projects and the number of plants LB 185 more differentiated mosch¬nym booking. The thickness of the steel towers and lis¬tov housing co-constitute 15, 25, 45 and 74 mm. The crew consisted of ten people. Armament consisted of 76mm, 45mm guns, one machine gun caliber 12.7mm or 20mm automatic cannon and machine guns caliber 7.62mm 5, one of them with the ability to fire at air targets. The design of the main tower and a number of elements was inherited from the project of the T-35M.

История советского танкостроения. Многобашенные тяжелые танки  (проекты 1937 - 1940 гг).
Option three-turret tank CB plant № 183. [1,999,003]

In late 1938, after a meeting in ABTU parameters for the design of a new heavy breakthrough tank were again changed. It was decided to focus on two-tower scheme, and the weight saved third tower used to enhance the booking.

group of engineers Dikalova the initiative to revise the draft of his tank in accordance with the new requirements, adding placement of weapons in the towers, Casemates position 2 heavy machine guns in the superstructure of the main tower.

История советского танкостроения. Многобашенные тяжелые танки  (проекты 1937 - 1940 гг).
two-tower version.

In connection with the development of new types of medium tanks A-20 and A-32 in the Kharkiv Locomotive Plant, as well as work on the modernization of the tank BT-7, further work on heavy car were discontinued in favor of projects LKZ tanks (tank QMS) and plant number 185 (T-100).

История советского танкостроения. Многобашенные тяжелые танки  (проекты 1937 - 1940 гг).
experienced tank QMS (1939). [1,999,003]

История советского танкостроения. Многобашенные тяжелые танки  (проекты 1937 - 1940 гг).
Experienced T-100 (1939 g).

However, in the course of combat tests during the Russo-Finnish War, it became clear that while massive and complex in the production of heavy tanks towered passes. Much better in the fighting proved to be experienced odnobashennye KV tanks.

История советского танкостроения. Многобашенные тяжелые танки  (проекты 1937 - 1940 гг).
The first prototype of the KV 76 and 45mm guns in one tower (1939). [1,999,003]

The military concluded that the armed 76mm gun and tank machine guns 2-3 in no way inferior to the properties of the two-tower combat vehicles and significantly outperforms them at the expense of smaller mass, and thus the pressure on the ground, the possibility to increase the thickness booking fewer crew of greater simplicity and cheapness in production and maintenance, ease of transportation.

The latest many-tower tank, whose production was launched, was the version of the T-100. In January 1940, the Deputy Commissar of Defense Commander 1st Rank G. Kulik instructed to “strengthen arms T-100 installation on a 152-mm Howitzer M-10 to fight the dragon’s teeth.”
By mid-March 1940 was made a new tower with a 152-mm howitzer M-10. She was supposed to be replaced by the T-100 tower with a 76-mm gun L-11. The car with the 152-mm gun system received index T-100-Z (Z).

История советского танкостроения. Многобашенные тяжелые танки  (проекты 1937 - 1940 гг).
Project T-100Z 1940 [1,999,003]

However, this modernization does not take place, as has already been tested fight KV instrument with a 152mm M-10 (the future HF-2). Tower with gun mounts created for T-100Z still had to open fire on the enemy during the siege of Leningrad, but only as a bunker.

История советского танкостроения. Многобашенные тяжелые танки  (проекты 1937 - 1940 гг).
Tower T-100Z. 1942 [1,999,003]

By 1940, the futility of towered Tank became clear to all the leading Soviet designers.

Sources:
[27.09.2013 11:28:41] Alexander Author: Kolomiets M., V. Malginov Soviet supertanki // Bronekollektsiya. Appendix to the magazine “Model Construction», 2002.- № 1 (40). – 32.
Kolomiets M. Moshchanskiĭ I. towered Red Army tanks T-35, SMC, T-100 // Front illustration, 2000.- № 5. – 84.
Kolomits M., S. T Svirin 35 Land Dreadnought Red Armii.- Jauza-M .: Eksmo, 2007.- 112 p.
Solyankin AG, Pavlov I., Pavlov MV, yellow IG Domestic armored vehicles. XX century. T. 1 (1905 – 1941 gg.) .- Moscow, 2002.- 344 p.

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