Home > Site news > The history of Soviet tank production. U-8TS (2A24) / D-54TS – Soviet 100-mm rifled tank gun. Part Two (Aces)

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Part II

Since the D-54TS was a long shot (1100 mm) than the families of the gun D-10T and GBTU did not want to introduce separate-case loading, the new tank to ensure that the working conditions loader designers’ department 60M “had to increase the diameter of the support Tower from 1816 mm (T-54) to 2250 mm. These changes led to perform work on linking the new body with overhead tank and chemically pure machine rollers which were to ensure even distribution of the load on the ground.

Morozov also offered as reinforcement to study the issue of weapons installation in the tank “object 430” 100-mm smoothbore gun. However, in a letter Mintransmash USSR from 20 August 1956, he refused to work on these.

Second, to increase the efficiency of the tank fire “object 430” intended to equip a gun D-54TS plane stabilizer arms with an independent line of sight, received code “Snowstorm”.

In general, depending on the functional diagram of the system stabilizing tank shells were divided into two types:
– axis stabilization system bore guns, also called stabilization systems with dependent line of sight;
– line of sight stabilization system, or field of sight, called stabilization systems with an independent line of sight.
In the post-war period of work in the field of stabilizers weapons were simultaneously in two directions.
The first direction was associated with the development of the power system stabilization tank gun, which had a rigid mechanical connection the sight line of sight and the axis of the bore guns. In this case, the two planes necessary to stabilize the whole system: the sight and weapon with tower. Such stabilization system had one drawback – when during the loading of the gun was blocked at predetermined elevations, and then blocked the sight.

As a result of work performed in this area have been created stabilizers guns medium tanks T-54A and T-54B, T-55, T-62A and T-62 light tank PT-76B. One aspect of this type of stabilizer was his most cheap in production, which led to its widespread use at mass medium tanks.

The second area involves the development of a tank sight with high-precision stabilization of the visual field of the sight and power system podstabilizatsii guns and the tower, which podslezhivala of stabilized line of sight. Between the gun and the gun was not rigid connection and electrical connection was introduced.

In fact, in tanks with a stabilization system receives two stabilization system: high-precision stabilization of the visual field of sight; second – force tracking system stabilization weapons. As a result, it had to abandon the rigid mechanical connection of the sight line of sight and the axis of the bore guns. This relationship had to replace electric. As a result, the fire control system, a new unit – “The fire contacts.” One pair of contacts close a circuit when the line of sight and the axis of the bore in the horizontal plane coincided with an accuracy sufficient for the shot. The second pair provides the same in the vertical plane.

The accuracy of the stabilizers of this type was significantly higher. For example, the head of the sight T2S “kick” there was a mirror that is the horizontal optical beam coming from the outside is refracted by 90 ° and directs it actually in sight. The weight of the mirror assembly was about 200 g to 200 g These were within sight stabilized in two planes. Tower medium tank assembly weighed about 6 tons, gun – about 2 tons, but they, too, were stabilized in two planes. Naturally, the accuracy of the field of view of the sight stabilization was significantly higher accuracy and stabilize the gun turret. A shot was carried out at a time when the line of sight of the sight and the axis of the bore match.

This type of stabilizer was used in the production of heavy tanks T-10A and T-10B, T-10M, as well as in experimental medium (“Object 139”, “Object 430” T-55 “Lightning” (unofficial factory designation experimental T-54B with a gun D-54TS, 2-plane stabilizer “Lightning” and the sight of T-2C developed UTZ them. Stalin in 1957 .; not be confused with the T-55 tank (“Object 155”)) and heavy (“Object 277”, “Object 279”, “Object 770”) tanks. However, despite the advantages of this type of stabilizer associated with a significant increase in the accuracy of the stabilization and facilitation work gunner, he was much more difficult to manufacture and maintain. In addition , referring to the weak research base and the limited capacity of the industry at that time it is more expensive, but because neotrabotannosti nedovedёnnosti and design of individual characteristics inferior to the stabilizer arms to the dependent line of sight.

In developing the prototype tank weapons complex “object 430” duty as follows: fighting compartment (BO) and a tank designed tank CB “Front 60M” factory number 75, two-plane stabilizer arms “Blizzard” with an independent line of sight, was developed by the Moscow Research Institute -173, day optical rangefinder sight TPDS stabilized field of view in the vertical plane – CKB-393 Krasnogorsk plant number 393, refinement of experimental gun under the stabilizer mechanism of sight and eject spent cartridges carried DB-9 Sverdlovsk artillery factory № 9.

In the scheme of the stabilizer arms have been provided to ensure after shot release of spent cartridges through a hatch in the back of the tower and the installation of an automatic gun at an angle of loading. Ejection device gun in combination with a novel mechanism of release liners were aimed at reducing gassed BO machine. Due to a more rational distribution of boeukladki, including in connection with the use of tanks, racks, new tank ammunition was increased to 50 artillery shells. While the shot gun D-54TS were longer shots D-10T.

История советского танкостроения. У-8ТС (2А24) / Д-54ТС — советская 100-мм нарезная танковая пушка. Часть вторая
experienced medium tank “Object 140”. The second prototype of the tank. Late version of the gun D-54TS with slotted muzzle brake reaction type. After the transfer tank to the Museum of armored vehicles Uralvagonzavod.

The development of two-plane, secure operating system stabilization was an important task of creating 430 th since the stabilization of the gun in the vertical and horizontal planes probability of hitting the enemy tank at an average driving conditions significantly different from the probability of hitting when fired from the spot. Before applying the stabilizer tanks fired only with the place and with short stops, as when shooting with the probability of hitting the course was only about 3% (one hundred shots per target is 3). When introducing the stabilizer arms in a vertical plane on a standard test course was planned to bring this percentage to 30%, and with 2-planar stabilizer – 60%. In addition, the stabilizer arms raised not only the accuracy, but also the average speed of the tank, thereby reducing its vulnerability. The task to improve the average speed on the NST, also stood in front of the team, “the department 60M”.

Unfortunately, work on the creation of the hydraulic stabilizer arms with the necessary reliability and accuracy of fire at the time were technically challenging. This is explained by the absence of the required number of experts, weak research and production base of the defense industry. Therefore tank weapons stabilizers that period there was a lot of disadvantages. The main disadvantages are: weak stabilizing moment, low reliability of the stabilizer, the vibration leakage from the gun and the power cylinder under pressure.

In addition, significantly affected work double interdepartmental barriers. From industrial tanks while developed enterprises Mintransmasha USSR and tank guns, scopes and stabilizers – businesses USSR Defense Ministry. The customer – the Ministry of Defence of the USSR with all the weapons engaged GAC, and the question of armored vehicles – GBTU. As a result, demand for the creation of the stabilizer arms developed and approved by GAC in consultation with HBTU, and the requirements for the installation of the stabilizer in the tank – GBTU in coordination with the GAC. Accordingly, the contract for the development and subsequent batch production of stabilizer SAU has concluded, and the tanks – GBTU.
Third, to increase the accuracy of firing tank “Object 430” was supposed to equip the tank with stabilized sight-rangefinder “TPDS” with distance-pipe base 1100 mm, which was developed in the Krasnogorsk CDB-393 plant № 393. Due to the selected tank stabilization scheme with an independent line of sight to maintain the accuracy needed additional time for testing the interaction of sight-dalnomer with the power system podstabilizatsii gun towers and electrical connection means. Due to the complexity of the tasks EMERGENCY prototypes sight interpretation appeared in 1958

The gun D-54TS could be put into service only in the middle of the tank. The creation of a new medium tanks “Object 140” and “Object 430” was held extremely difficult.

История советского танкостроения. У-8ТС (2А24) / Д-54ТС — советская 100-мм нарезная танковая пушка. Часть вторая
experienced medium tank “Object 141”. An early version of the gun D-54TS with triple muzzle brake. Factory tests, 1955

When creating a medium tank “object 140” with 100-mm tank gun D-54TS tank in CB “Front 520” UTZ them. Joseph Stalin led the young chief designer L.N.Kartseva were made a number of technical errors caused by the need to stay within a specified weight TTT (36 m.). Despite the efforts of designers, compared with TTT tank I had the advantage of 500 kg. In March 1958 at the request of the chief designer L.N.Kartseva USSR Ministry of Defense submitted to the Council of Ministers a proposal to halt work on a new medium tank “object 140” because of its low-tech complex in manufacture and in maintenance and repair of the structure. Officially, the work on the tank “object 140” were discontinued in the Council of Ministers of the USSR № 609-284 on June 6, 1958 After this L.N.Kartsev focused its efforts on the evolutionary development of the T-55 (“Object 155”), soon creating experimental medium tanks “object 165”, “Object 166” and “Object 167”.

In 1961, it became clear that because of the nedovedёnnosti engine, cooling system and a number of other new nodes tank significant margin on the technical characteristics of the existing models of an experienced medium tank “object 430″ with 100-mm tank gun D-54TS can not provide and the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers № 141-58 of 17 February 1961, work on it was suspended (based on the same design grazed decree number 75 plant them. Malyshev wondered development of the technical project of the tank ” Object 432 “, but with a 115-mm smoothbore gun and mechanization of loading).

История советского танкостроения. У-8ТС (2А24) / Д-54ТС — советская 100-мм нарезная танковая пушка. Часть вторая
experienced medium tank “Object 140”. The second prototype of the tank. Late version of the gun D-54TS with slotted muzzle brake reaction type. The outdoor area of ​​the museum BTVT Kubinka.

Shortly before this (after the cessation of work on the medium tank “object 140” with 100-mm tank gun D-54TS) in a tank CB “Front 520” factory number 183 under the leadership of L.N.Kartseva based units and units of medium tanks T-54 / T-55 was created by an experienced medium tank “Object 165”, which was equipped with a 100-mm tank gun D-54TS with two-plane stabilizer arms “Comet”. Unlike tanks “object 140” and “object 430” machine had a high degree of commonality with the serial medium tanks of the family T-54 / T-55 (“Object 137” / “Object 155”).
In 1958, collected three prototypes of a medium tank “Object 165” with 100-mm tank gun D-54TS, who soon passed the cycle factory and state tests. After creating the OKB-9 plant number 9 115 mm smoothbore tank gun U-5TS (2A20), which had a 100-mm rifled tank gun D-54TS identical size, based on the tank “Object 165” at the factory number 183 under the leadership of Designer L.N.Kartseva was established experienced medium tank “object 166”, distinguished setting gun U-5TS (2A20). Further work on the final design of the tanks “object 165” and “Object 166” were almost parallel.

История советского танкостроения. У-8ТС (2А24) / Д-54ТС — советская 100-мм нарезная танковая пушка. Часть вторая
История советского танкостроения. У-8ТС (2А24) / Д-54ТС — советская 100-мм нарезная танковая пушка. Часть вторая
experienced medium tank “Object 142”. Late version of the gun D-54TS with slotted muzzle brake reaction type. The machine features a tower with weapons borrowed from an experienced medium tank “Object 140” (tower had Welded roof). Subsequently, STC GBTU tank received the designation “object 165”, the first prototype 1959

In February 1960, it was completed re-Polygon army tank testing “Object 165”. During the tests, the gun in his OKB-9 has been upgraded. Barrel of the gun was to consolidate and his weight increased to 2390 kg. Because of the start of the new piercing projectiles steepness rifling of the barrel was changed from 25 to 35 klb klb. In addition, the gun and the tank got a new stabilizer arms “Meteor”. The new version of the gun D-54TS has received factory designation U-8TS. Resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers № 729-305 from August 12, 1961 At gun-plane stabilizer 8TS with “Meteor” and caliber armor-piercing and high-explosive shells was put into service as part of a medium tank “Object 165”. The tank was given the designation T-62A, and the gun – the index Grau 2A24. However, piercing projectiles for it has not yet been brought. Simultaneously with them has been adopted and the tank “object 166” with a gun U-5TS (2A20). He got the T-62.

Thus, the Soviet Army had taken two variants of the T-62: T-62A (object 165) with 100-mm rifled tank gun U-8TS (2A24) and T-62 (object 166) to 115-mm smoothbore gun U-5TS “Hammer” (2A20). Mass production of both cars was planned to begin at the plant №183 from September 1963

История советского танкостроения. У-8ТС (2А24) / Д-54ТС — советская 100-мм нарезная танковая пушка. Часть вторая
experienced medium tank “Object 165”. Late version of the gun D-54TS with slotted muzzle brake reaction type. The second prototype of the tank, 1959

at the factory number 183 in Nizhny Tagil began preparation for mass production of the T-62 (“Object 166”) with a 115 mm smoothbore tank gun U-5TS “Hammer” (2A20), but in March 1962 it was It decided “in connection with the need to reduce the range of tank guns production T-62A does not start.” There was only released the initial batch of T-62A («Object 165″) in the amount of 25 pieces.

Operation of the tanks showed that nevertheless caused a lot of criticism and muzzle brake gun U-8TS. In winter, when the shooting muzzle brake raised a cloud of snow, in the summer – dusty or sandy. It unmasked the tank and “blinding” him vision devices. Muzzle a negative impact on landing on the armor and infantry advancing along with the tank. A major shortcoming of the muzzle brake the decline in accuracy.
Resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers № 656-268 of 29.06.1962, the further work on the gun U-8TS (D-54TS) have been terminated “in connection with the development of a forward-looking manner.”

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