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Origins of tank. Dreams of Steel Armada

tank development is inextricably linked with the strategy and tactics of using armored forces. In the archives there are not many papers on the subject, and the more valuable each one. Here are some similar findings during the First World War and the Great Patriotic War. They are naive, sometimes even absurd. But their authors do not deny one thing: indifferent to what is happening in the heavy time for the fatherland.

Схема Июньского наступления русской армии в 1917 году. Примерно такую же предлагал Кангро для своей сухопутной эскадры Land squadron Kangro

In July 1917 Petrograd inhabitant E. . Kangro made and passed in the Engineering Committee of the project of self-propelled artillery battery. Drawings or sketches battery Kangro to the letter did not apply, of its structure can now only guess. But far more curious of the project was presented by the author detailed plan of combat use of these machines.

The inventor claimed that his future ACS can «& hellip; move on whatever ground in the absence of roads, vzbiratsya and spuskatsya for not too steep banks of rivers and lakes (up to 35 & deg;), swim on their own water space, crossing the Balota, free to take obstacles & hellip; » ( hereinafter spelling and style of the original source retained. – Approx. Ed. ). In his ambition Kangro dreamed as its mass self-propelled guns stormed the northern front along its entire length, “which stretches a broad band of several hundred miles from Russia on the shores of the Baltic and North seas up to France” .

border fortifications Kangro does not care much greater importance he attached to infrastructure and industrial potential of the enemy offensive in the area. The advancing armada automotive batteries should not smash the enemy troops, and its highways, not allowing to quickly redeploy troops advanced, ride them food and ammunition. What Kangro was right, so it is that the failure of military supplies – a sure way to defeat in the war. In addition, running through the north German artillery armada would be demolished on the way weapons and shipbuilding enemy docks and shipyards, the airbase. Kangro offered to walk with fire and steel along the German coast. He took into account and close air support – land squadron was to accompany the squadron with a mobile repair facilities. And even the dreaded symbol of the First World War, chemical weapons, did not bother Strategy: “creep gases is not so dangerous as creep bottom and all sides completely closed and impermeable (artificial ventilation)” .

Of course, the project Kangro was utopian. But given his lack of military education in the details surpassed inventor and Jean-Baptiste Etienne, one of the founding fathers of Armored Forces, Brigadier General, German master of self-promotion and Heinz Guderian. Another thing is that the summer of 1917 the command was not up to global designs Kangro. Army covered by revolutionary chaos, launched a major offensive the available forces, and it failed. And the success of the massive tank attacks a year later, during the “Hundred Days Offensive” on the Western Front, hardly impressed Kangro: the draft was much bigger British.

Кульминация «звездообразного наступления» — схема из письма Коробки и Бурдюгова (фото ЦАМО РФ) Geometry victory

Military archives of the Great Patriotic War is also not devoid of strategic plans. One of such projects entered the People’s Commissariat of Defense (NCO) of the USSR in the hardest time in August 1942. The authors, political instructor EV box and Second Lieutenant ST Burdyugov seen the purpose of their developments neither more nor less than the non-stop offensive of the Red Army and the defeat of the enemy. But how to achieve this? The answer was simple: “The most efektivnost use of military equipment on uskom site; This is achieved by the system of the star offensive “.

Another ancient Romans said that a good start – half the battle. In terms of boxes and Burdyugova success depended on breakthrough groups of Soviet troops on a number of sectors of the front. After breaking the Red Army tank units continued to pursue the enemy, and the second echelon moved up to the front of reserves. And further advancing the key point of the whole operation: “flank three groups, each deployed to the left and to the right and cause the enemy flank attack” . According to the plan, the enemy is caught between two fires – the advancing troops and units of the second echelon. Nazis waited not escape from the front, and along its lines. In the end, began to attack and Soviet reserves. Proof of Theorem Boxes – Burdyugova was to serve as a victory. However, the response to their letter to the Soviet General Staff documents were found.

Каргополов не изобразил своё «иррациональное наступление» наглядно, но эта схема из аналогичного проекта приблизительно отражает суть его предложения (фото ЦАМО РФ) “Rush” means “rush”

In the gaming slang World of Tanks is the word ” Rush “(Eng. rush -« rush, rush “). During the Great Patriotic War, this Anglicism was still unknown, but it is difficult to find a more precise definition of one of the plans for the defeat of Nazi Germany, invented at the time.

Almost simultaneously with the letter boxes and Burdyugova discussed above, in NKO received A letter of a Kargopolova, a resident of Stalingrad. The author suggests rate completely new tactics application of armored troops, calling it “irrational” , that is unfathomable mind. The key phrase in the text of the letter underlined, like this: “Modern Tactics in its pure form only recognizes one thing: movement, moving forward, and only forward, in that whatever was ahead!” Kargopolov proposed focus in a separate section of the front maximum possible number of tanks during the day to break them up front and break into Germany. “In this case, after 6-7 days Berlin will face immediate threat” , anticipating irrational tactics.

Kargopolov in his message did not skimp on the exclamation marks: “No looking back at the rear! Such forces do not have the rear. Just go ahead and forward “. In addition, he proposed to organize a similar breakthrough by the Anglo-American allies in the West. Their tank armies should throw straight to Germany by air. “If my suggestion of anything to help our command, I’ll be happy. I believe in my proposal is nothing unattainable or fiction “ – Complete Kargopolov letter. It was hemmed in business in three copies, but also earned a proper evaluation of command. Two weeks later, the Luftwaffe had a terrible bombardment of Stalingrad, and the war came to the dreamer home. His fate is unknown.

Lyricist – Yuri Bahurin

Yuri Bahurin – military historian. Author of several publications in the central and regional scientific journals: journals “Questions of History”, “Military History Journal,” “Military-Historical Archive”, “Motherland”, “Anthology of War” anthology “Reiter” and so on. D. The author «Panzerj & auml; ger Tiger (P) & ldquo; Ferdinand & rdquo ;. Combat use. “

Sources:

  • Russian State Military History Archive (RGVIA). F. 803. Op. 1. D. 1817. L. 156-159.
  • Central Archive of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation (RF TsAMO). F. 14. Op. 11603. 2. D. L. 315-326ob.
  • TsAMO Russia. F. 14. Op. 11603. D. 17. L. 275-276ob, 285.

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