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Development of the first British tanks engaged Landships Committee. Many miles from a UK Pakkul Karl Ivanovich, a resident of Riga, also called the project “a land battleship.” His brainchild was a mnogokolёsnuyu car with a solid book and, according to the engineer, had different set of useful features.

“do not care for some areas …”


At the end of August 1915 officers of the Office of the Chief Military-Technical Management puzzled: they had received a letter from a certain Ivan Karlovich Pakkulya, resident Riga. The author appealed to his uncle Emperor Nicholas II, the Grand Duke Nicholas, but called him “Imperial Majesty.” In view of the rumors in the community about the ambitions of the Grand Duke on the royal throne, it’s easy attracted to the scandal, whether the document published! However, military engineers prefer to deal with the contents of the document, not its form.

Pakkul wrote: “Thanks to my technical knowledge, I was able to reinvent the news on the War Department, surpassing all existing armored vehicles … My invention represents a land battleship, move freely, no matter at what areas: the hills, sand , swamps, across rivers, ditches and trenches 15 feet wide. Has an area for areas with rapid-10-12 guns or guns “[1,999,024]. (Hereinafter, spelling and style of the original source retained. – Approx. Ed.)

The main objective of his car I. Pakkul seen the intersection of two lines of trenches and cleaning hatches of the fire

Corps armored car Pakkulya resembled an inverted upside down boat. In armor plating meant hatches for shooting – they are visible on the reconstruction of the sketch.

in front of a “land battleship” design was similar to the locomotive “kaukecher” (Eng. Cowcatcher). This oblique Grate “bump” intended for dropping cows coming to the railroad tracks. Pakkul going to make this device mobile. At the approach of “Battleship” to the obstacle it was taken up, the machine will then climb over a pothole or uneven and grill again fell. In addition, the inventor did not rule out the installation in the bow of his creation of scissors to cut the barbed wire.

armored car chassis Pakkulya consisted of five pairs of wheels located on the front and the ice rink – “runner”, attached to a pair of front and moving along with it. “Land Battleship” was driven by a single motor located in the rear of the chassis. The chain drive should rotate the wheels of the car. Each of them is fastened to the vertical axis of the levers. According to the plan Pakkulya, these axes would allow to deploy the wheels in any direction.

“Battleship” and “pitfalls”

As with any such initiative, the project Pakkulya were analyzed, which revealed a number of its design flaws:

“1 / Vehicle unable to turn around, so as all-wheel drive, the number of pairs 5, located on the same rigid frame and if the wheels turn at the same time in parallel in what some one way, as the author of designs, the car will move oblicheski. “ Simply put, the car will suffer at random. At the same undercarriage could break down and is likely to be broken at the beginning of the movement.

The draft Pakkulya did not provide even a hint of depreciation. The author emphasized that he sees his creation not only fighting machine, but the armored transport. But in fact, the people inside the armored car when driving on rough terrain would have a hard time. For confirmation of the need not go far enough to remember the suffering from shock crews rhomboid British tanks.

In the defects were recorded too large “land battleship.” According to the calculations of experts GVTU length “land battleship” would amount to as much as 7 yards (about 15 meters). The impressive dimensions of the armored car itself Pakkul clearly be an advantage. He believed that the main task of his car – cross the line just two enemy trenches and to clean their machine-gun fire. But in reality, the distance between the trenches during the First World War was 100-300 steps. So fighting machine just would Pakkulya excellent target for artillery, with not even maneuverable trench guns and bulky field.

“4 / internal combustion engine is put inside the machine will overheat “- said in a statement professionals. But not only the inventor has not provided any exhaust or cooling system of the engine. That is, it is not clear what would happen before – went down to the engine or suffocated to crew and marines in “Battleship.”

Conclusion military engineers stated: “The project is not thought out and this car is not suitable” . Other military-technical proposals Pakkulya history and archives are not preserved, and is difficult to say whether he had received any notice from GVTU. In the summer of 1915 the front came close to Riga, began mass evacuation of industrial enterprises and exodus of refugees from the city. On normal work email in this situation and there could be no.

autumn GVTU enrolled in the project, similar to the machine Pakkulya: “armored cars, car mechanical engineer Konova “. It coincides with the “land battleship” in the appointment and details of construction (transportation allowance, solid book, even cutting device front), as well as in its defects (large mass, poor maneuverability, motor overheating). Letter Konova also removed under the carpet.

Prior to the first of these tanks on the battlefield was already less than a year.

Also read: “Machines anonymous constructors’ .

Lyricist – Yuri Bahurin

Yuri Bahurin – military historian. Author of several publications in the central and regional scientific journals: journals “Questions of History”, “Military History Journal,” “Military-Historical Archive”, “Motherland”, “Anthology of War” anthology “Reiter” and so on. D. The author «Panzerjäger Tiger (P)” Ferdinand “. Combat use. “

Sources and Literature:

  • Russian State Military History Archive (RGVIA). F. 803. Op. 1. D. 1855. L. 72-75, 77-77ob, 98-99. [1,999,100]
  • Documentary collection company Wargaming.
  • Kolonitskii BI Warrior “old time”: the great images Duke Nicholas during the First World War // Studia Russica Helsingiensia et Tartuensia X: «present century a century past”: a cultural reflection of a bygone era: in 2 hours. Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastaus, 2006. Part 2. S. 297- 326.

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